Safety Design & Safety Design Analysis
- designing equipment to reduce or eliminate hazards in the use of the equipment, which is usually called designing out the safety hazards
- the specification of safeguards, as required, including guards, light curtains, double operating buttons, safety instrumentation, etc.
- the designing or specification of warnings as required
- Human Factors and the analysis of the human - equipment and human - facility interfaces
- accepted engineering safety standards and practices
- Codes & Standards and Recommended Practices
Safety design is performed based on the the Safety Design Hierarchy, which is the accepted system for design of safe equipment, systems, products and facilities. The Safety Design Hierarchy requires designing for safety as follows:
- first, design out the safety hazards in equipment, products and facilities
- second, use safeguards to protect from those safety hazards which cannot be designed out
- third, use warnings for those safety hazards which cannot be designed out and for which safeguards cannot be used to protect from the safety hazard*
- fourth, use warnings to complement safeguards when this adds to the safety of the installation where safeguards are used to protect from hazards
● Safety design includes:
● Safety design in application is based on:
- do NOT use warnings in place of safeguards or designing out a hazard, when safeguards or designing out the hazard is feasible
- do NOT use safeguards in place of designing out a hazard, when designing out a hazard is feasible
● Design using the Safety Design Hierarchy has prohibitions as follows:
*If the sole safety feature to protect against a hazard with a piece of equipment, system, product or facility would be a warning, it may not be acceptable to use the equipment, system, product or facility without eliminating the hazard, depending on the circumstances and severity of the hazard, and availability of alternative equipment, systems, etc. for the same use, which must be determined from engineering analysis. Providing a warning for a piece of equipment, system, product or facility does not automatically meet the requirements of the safety design hierarchy when it is not possible to use a safeguard with the equipment, system, product or facility as it is designed.
Safety Design is based to a significant degree on Human Factors. Human Factors and Safety Design are the bases for the use of Safeguards and Warnings. Safeguards and Warnings are required by Safety Design principles. Human Factors and Safety Design are an important part of the basis for many generally accepted Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices. These subject areas are all closely related.
as a forensic engineer for over 30 years, routinely use the principles of safety design in the engineering analysis of accidents, and equipment and facilities involved in accidents, including analyzing Safeguards and Warnings which are present, and analyzing for the need for Safeguards and/or Warnings
organized, participated in and supervised the writing of a Design Manual for the design of boiler systems to meet safety design requirements and the ASME Boiler Code and other applicable codes and standard.
designed and presented courses to Design Engineers covering the design of safety relief devices and safety relief systems
designed specialized safety and air pollution control systems, including flares, vents, foam fire protection systems and similar systems, as well as safety devices including safety and overpressure relief valves, rupture discs, overpressure blowout panels
organized, participated in and supervised the writing of Design Manuals for equipment, machinery, piping, valving and instrumentation to meet safety design requirements and applicable codes, standards and recommended practices
assured the technical quality of engineering designs, especially of the safety design of equipment and facilities, design of safety facilities, safeguards and warnings, through hands-on reviews and formal technical reviews and approvals of engineering designs of industrial and manufacturing facilities, piping, valving, instrumentation, equipment and machinery
during 17 years in industrial operations and engineering design used Safety Design as an integral part of engineering design of all industrial and manufacturing equipment and facilities including specification of Safeguards and Warnings, which required the use of Safety Design and the Safety Design Hierarchy
Combined, Engineering and Normal Psychology are the scientific bases of Human Factors and the related studies of the human-machine interface, human-facility interface, and responses to hazards, which comprise a significant part of the foundation for Safety Design and Safety Design Analysis. James D. Madden, P.E. has specific education in Engineering and Normal Psychology, as follows:
Experience and Qualifications of James D. Madden, P.E. in regard to Safety Design
as part of the Bachelors and Masters degrees in Engineering, and college work after receiving the degrees, he took extensive coursework in Engineering
● he minored in Normal Psychology, as part of the Bachelors degree work
earned the Professional Engineers license (P.E.) by taking the National Council of Engineering Examiners' examination in Fundamentals of Engineering and the Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering sections of the National Council of Engineering Examiners' (NCEE) examination in Principles and Practices of Engineering
earned 2 Engineering degrees, Bachelor of Science and Master of Engineering, and took additional credit coursework post-degree, taking coursework in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering mechanics, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and normal psychology
at the start of forensic work, completed refresher and additional post-degree college credit coursework and continuing education coursework in mechanical engineering, metallurgy and materials
designated a Diplomate Forensic Engineer by the National Academy of Forensic Engineers in accordance with the standards of the Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB)
● attended engineering seminars presented by the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
regularly attend additional technical courses and seminars each year to meet the requirements for continuing engineering education for the Professional Engineer's license
● over 40 years of engineering experience, with:
● 17 years experience in industrial operations, engineering design and construction assistance
● 30 years experience in forensic engineering, including:
● working on over 1000 cases
● issuing over 600 reports and over 60 affidavits
● testifying in over 90 depositions and over 75 trials
● Also during employment in engineering design:
click for discussion of Safety Design and Safety Design Analysis,
including the Safety Design Hierarchy
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Safety features, such as Safeguards and Warnings, are based on Safety Design principles and Human Factors. The use of these safety features is an integral part of Safety Design. The principles of Safety Design are routinely involved in our engineering analysis for the need for Safeguards and/or Warnings when one or the other is not present. The principles of Safety Design are also routinely involved in our analysis of Safeguards and Warnings which are present, for their appropriateness and sufficiency. Our Analysis of the requirements for Safeguards and Warnings is a routine aspect of our engineering analysis of equipment, facilities and operations.
Our Work using Safety Design Principles in Forensic Engineering Work
In the Forensic Engineering work in the Forensic Specialties, the principles of Safety Design, especially the Safety Design Hierarchy, are an integral routine
Engineering analysis using the principles of Safety Design for safety hazards and protection includes analysis of residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing and construction equipment and associated facilities, and components associated with this equipment. Engineering analysis using the principles of Safety Design for safety hazards and protection includes analysis of facilities and consumer products from the simple to the complex. The application of Safety Design principles, along with Human Factors, is a routine and integral part of our engineering analysis of the safety of equipment, consumer products, all types of facilities, industrial and commercial operations, and construction activities.
Safety Design includes designing equipment to reduce or eliminate hazards in the use of the equipment, the specification of safeguards, as required, including guards, light curtains, double operating buttons, safety instrumentation, etc., and the designing or specification of warnings as required.
Safety Design principles, along with Human Factors, are part of the bases of the best Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices. We routinely use Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices in our engineering analysis, and the associated principles of Safety Design included in these Codes and Standards.
aspect of the engineering analysis of equipment and facilities involved in accidents, including the analysis of the specific requirements to Design Out Hazards, or use Safeguards and Warnings, versus the actual design of the equipment and the Safeguards and Warnings present.
Safety Design - Table of Contents - links to content on this page
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer, James D. Madden, P.E., a licensed professional engineer, has performed Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses and Accident Reconstructions for accidents, incidents and cases in the metropolitan areas of Cleveland, Akron, Canton, Toledo, Warren, Youngstown, Mansfield, Columbus, Dayton, Cincinnati, Lima, Findlay, Marietta and Steubenville, as well elsewhere throughout Ohio, and the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh and Erie, as well as elsewhere throughout western and central Pennsylvania, and the metropolitan areas of Detroit, Ann Arbor, Lansing, Flint and Port Huron, as well as elsewhere in southern Michigan, and the metropolitan areas of Buffalo and Syracuse, as well as elsewhere in western and central New York state. In many of these areas James D. Madden, P.E. has provided expert reports and testified in the capacity of an Expert Witness in court proceedings, including depositions, arbitrations and/or trials.
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer James D. Madden, P.E., is available for Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses, Accident Reconstructions, and testimony in deposition, arbitration and trial, for cases located throughout North America.
Consultation is available before starting a case. We invite you to
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Call us, or if you prefer we can schedule the consultation in advance.
Consultation with James D. Madden, PE, a Professional Engineer, and Forensic
Engineering Consulting and Testifying Expert Witness, is available to the client at all
times during the work - before, during, and after the investigation,
engineering analysis, reconstruction, report, and any other work on the case.
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Qualifications of James D. Madden, P.E., Senior Forensic Engineer
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Over the last 30 years we have regularly worked on accidents which occurred in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, New York and nearby, including inspections of accident sites, equipment, and facilities, with reports and testimony. During these 30 years we have also worked on accidents which occurred in other states, and equipment and facilities located in other states, with inspections of accident sites, equipment, and facilities, from Utah and Kansas to Vermont and North Carolina, with reports and testimony for these accidents, when applicable.
Geographic Area of Practice - North America
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● verbal reports, by telephone or in face-to-face conferences
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Presentation of results of our work
Our work investigating, analyzing and reconstructing accidents, and presenting the results, may include any
or all of the following, depending on the needs of the case:
Our Typical Work Activities and Products, when warranted by the case
● written reports and affidavits
● deposition testimony, including video deposition
● trial testimony and arbitration testimony
James D. Madden, P.E., while performing Forensic Engineering work full-time for over
the last 30 years, for both plaintiff and defendant, has to date:
Forensic Engineering Work by Senior Forensic Engineer James D. Madden, P.E.
● completed over 1000 cases
● written and issued over 600 reports
● testified in over 90 depositions
● written and issued over 60 affidavits
● testified in over 75 trials
See details of the forensic work throughout this website, and a summary on the Employment Page.
The qualifications of James D. Madden, P.E., Senior Forensic Engineer, Consulting and Testifying
Forensic Engineer and Accident Reconstruction Engineer, are listed on the Qualifications Page and the Specialties Work Page (on another website opening on a separate tab). <<< Click on the underlined text.
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■ Our Work using Safety Design, and its involvement in Our Forensic Engineering Work ■ Our Forensic Engineering Work - number of ● Cases ● Reports ● Affidavits ●Testimonies ■ Safety Design Discussed ■ Safety Design Principles ■ Safety Design Hierarchy ■ Geographic Area available for Work ■ Contact Us by Phone, Mail or Email ■ Consult, before and after assignment
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■ Experience & Qualifications ■ Our Typical Work Activities & Products ■ Presentation of Results of Work ■ Fee Schedule availability ■ Curriculum Vitae and additional Qualifications ■ Links to Other Pages (left sidebars)
● inspection of the accident site, such as a roadway, outdoor facilities, building or industrial facilities
● interviewing witnesses (often during the inspection of the accident site, product and/or equipment)
coordinating or interfacing with others while they are preparing specialized exhibits such as video animations and videos of demonstrations
review and study of case documents, evidence and applicable codes, standards, regulations and recommended practices
● written reports and affidavits, and exhibits
drawings, calculations, graphical analyses, computer analyses, etc. as required to analyze and reconstruct the accident, and to present the engineering analysis and reconstruction
● testing accident items and exemplar items (such as consumer products)
● photography and/or video of the accident site and involved equipment
● testimony in deposition, trial and arbitration
inspection of the involved equipment, in current condition, including in damaged condition (such as crashed vehicles); and when available for operation, during operation (such as industrial equipment)
for more information,
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Senior Forensic Engineer's
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Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering
over 30 Years Investigating, Analyzing, Reconstructing & Testifying about Accidents
Forensic Engineering & Scientific Accident Reconstruction
Copyright 2011, 2012, 2015, 2016, 2018, 2019 by Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering and James D. Madden, P.E., aka James Madden and Jim Madden.
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Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer, James D. Madden, P.E., a licensed professional engineer, has performed Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses and Accident Reconstructions routinely for accidents, incidents and cases located in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and New York, in the technical areas which are noted in this website, as well as providing expert reports and testifying in court proceedings in these states in the capacity of an Expert Witness, including depositions, arbitrations and/or trials, with Forensic Engineering work also performed in, and/or for cases in, Illinois, Maryland, North Carolina, Vermont, Kansas and Utah, with testimony in court in Kansas.
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering
1700 West Market Street, Suite 318, Akron, Ohio 44313, or
8803 Brecksville Road, Suite 7-216, Cleveland, Ohio 44141
phone: 440-838-1191 or 440-832-9540, fax: 440-838-1192